Citation: BMC Clinical Pharmacology 2012 12:14
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Statin therapy in critical illness: an international survey of intensive care physicians’ opinions, attitudes and practice
Pleotropic effects of statins on inflammation are hypothesised to attenuate the severity of and possibly prevent the occurrence of the host inflammatory response to pathogen and infection-related acute organ f...
Citation: BMC Clinical Pharmacology 2012 12:13
Data for drugs available through low-cost prescription drug programs are available through pharmacy benefit manager and claims data
Observational data are increasingly being used for pharmacoepidemiological, health services and clinical effectiveness research. Since pharmacies first introduced low-cost prescription programs (LCPP), researc...
Citation: BMC Clinical Pharmacology 2012 12:12
Population prevalence of high dose paracetamol in dispensed paracetamol/opioid prescription combinations: an observational study
Paracetamol (acetaminophen) is generally considered a safe medication, but is associated with hepatotoxicity at doses above doses of 4.0g/day, and even below this daily dose in certain populations.
Citation: BMC Clinical Pharmacology 2012 12:11
Adherence to medication for the treatment of psychosis: rates and risk factors in an Ethiopian population
Medication-taking behavior, specifically non-adherence, is significantly associated with treatment outcome and is a major cause of relapse in the treatment of psychotic disorders. Non-adherence can be multifac...
Citation: BMC Clinical Pharmacology 2012 12:10
An accurate medication list at hospital admission is essential for the evaluation and further treatment of patients. The objective of this study was to describe the frequency, type and predictors of errors in ...
Citation: BMC Clinical Pharmacology 2012 12:9
Effect of exenatide on the pharmacokinetics of a combination oral contraceptive in healthy women: an open-label, randomised, crossover trial
Consistent with its effect on gastric emptying, exenatide, an injectable treatment for type 2 diabetes, may slow the absorption rate of concomitantly administered oral drugs resulting in a decrease in maximum ...
Citation: BMC Clinical Pharmacology 2012 12:8
Adverse drug reactions to antiretroviral therapy (ARVs): incidence, type and risk factors in Nigeria
Data on adverse drug reactions (ADRs) related to antiretroviral (ARV) use in public health practice are few indicating the need for ART safety surveillance in clinical care.
Citation: BMC Clinical Pharmacology 2012 12:7
A cost effectiveness analysis of the preferred antidotes for acute paracetamol poisoning patients in Sri Lanka
Acute paracetamol poisoning is a rapidly increasing problem in Sri Lanka. The antidotes are expensive and yet no health economic evaluation has been done on the therapy for acute paracetamol poisoning in the d...
Citation: BMC Clinical Pharmacology 2012 12:6
Quality and safety of medication use in primary care: consensus validation of a new set of explicit medication assessment criteria and prioritisation of topics for improvement
Addressing the problem of preventable drug related morbidity (PDRM) in primary care is a challenge for health care systems internationally. The increasing implementation of clinical information systems in the ...
Citation: BMC Clinical Pharmacology 2012 12:5
High dose oral thiamine may have a role in treating diabetes, heart failure, and hypermetabolic states. The purpose of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetic profile of oral thiamine hydrochloride at ...
Citation: BMC Clinical Pharmacology 2012 12:4
Mechanisms for an effect of acetylcysteine on renal function after exposure to radio-graphic contrast material: study protocol
Contrast-induced nephropathy is a common complication of contrast administration in patients with chronic kidney disease and diabetes. Its pathophysiology is not well understood; similarly the role of intraven...
Citation: BMC Clinical Pharmacology 2012 12:3
Validation of an LC-MS/MS method to determine five immunosuppressants with deuterated internal standards including MPA
Therapeutic drug monitoring of immunosuppressive drugs in organ-transplanted patients is crucial to prevent intoxication or transplant rejection due to inadequate dosage. The commonly used immunoassays have be...
Citation: BMC Clinical Pharmacology 2012 12:2
We aimed to explore relations between symptomatic remission and functionality evaluation in schizophrenia patients treated with paliperidone extended-release (ER), as seen in a normal day-to-day practice, usin...
Citation: BMC Clinical Pharmacology 2012 12:1
Drospirenone/ethinyl-estradiol is an oral contraceptive (OC) that possesses unique antimineralocorticoid activity. It is conjectured that drospirenone, taken alone or concomitantly with spironolactone, may be ...
Citation: BMC Clinical Pharmacology 2011 11:23
Clinical effects and outcomes of a single dose etomidate prior to intubation in the intensive care setting is controversial. The aim of this study is to evaluate the association of a single dose effect of etom...
Citation: BMC Clinical Pharmacology 2011 11:22
Use of antipsychotic and antidepressant within the Psychiatric Disease Centre, Regional Health Service of Ferrara
This study aimed at describing the type and dosage of psychopharmaceuticals dispensed to patients with psychiatric disorders and to assess the percentage of patients treated with antipsychotics and antidepress...
Citation: BMC Clinical Pharmacology 2011 11:21
Price, familiarity, and availability determine the choice of drug - a population-based survey five years after generic substitution was introduced in Finland
Mandatory generic substitution (GS) was introduced in Finland at the beginning of April 2003. However, individual patients or physicians may forbid the substitution. GS was a significant change for Finnish med...
Citation: BMC Clinical Pharmacology 2011 11:20
Public perception on the role of community pharmacists in self-medication and self-care in Hong Kong
The choices for self-medication in Hong Kong are much diversified, including western and Chinese medicines and food supplements. This study was to examine Hong Kong public knowledge, attitudes and behaviours r...
Citation: BMC Clinical Pharmacology 2011 11:19
Knowledge, attitudes and practice survey about antimicrobial resistance and prescribing among physicians in a hospital setting in Lima, Peru
Misuse of antimicrobials (AMs) and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) are global concerns. The present study evaluated knowledge, attitudes and practices about AMR and AM prescribing among medical doctors in two l...
Citation: BMC Clinical Pharmacology 2011 11:18
Panitumumab is a fully human antibody against the epidermal growth factor receptor that is indicated for the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) after disease progression on standard chemotherapy....
Citation: BMC Clinical Pharmacology 2011 11:17
What can we learn from consumer reports on psychiatric adverse drug reactions with antidepressant medication? Experiences from reports to a consumer association
According to the World Health Organization (WHO) the cost of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in the general population is high and under-reporting by health professionals is a well-recognized problem. Another wa...
Citation: BMC Clinical Pharmacology 2011 11:16
Tobacco smoking remains the leading modifiable health hazard and varenicline is amongst the most popular pharmacological options for smoking cessation. The purpose of this study is to critically evaluate the e...
Citation: BMC Clinical Pharmacology 2011 11:15
Impact of information letters on the reporting rate of adverse drug reactions and the quality of the reports: a randomized controlled study
Spontaneous reporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) is an important method for pharmacovigilance, but under-reporting and poor quality of reports are major limitations. The aim of this study was to evaluate...
Citation: BMC Clinical Pharmacology 2011 11:14
Cognitive functioning in opioid-dependent patients treated with buprenorphine, methadone, and other psychoactive medications: stability and correlates
In many but not in all neuropsychological studies buprenorphine-treated opioid-dependent patients have shown fewer cognitive deficits than patients treated with methadone. In order to examine if hypothesized c...
Citation: BMC Clinical Pharmacology 2011 11:13
The effect of statin therapy on mortality in critically ill patients is controversial, with some studies suggesting a benefit and others suggesting no benefit or even potential harm. The objective of this stud...
Citation: BMC Clinical Pharmacology 2011 11:12
An evaluation of ciprofloxacin pharmacokinetics in critically ill patients undergoing continuous veno-venous haemodiafiltration
The study aimed to investigate the pharmacokinetics of intravenous ciprofloxacin and the adequacy of 400 mg every 12 hours in critically ill Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients on continuous veno-venous haemodi...
Citation: BMC Clinical Pharmacology 2011 11:11
The effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids in alcohol dependence treatment - a double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study
The lipid fraction of cell membranes consists of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAS), and chronic alcohol use alters it, modifying its permeability, what might contribute for the dysfunctional metabolism obser...
Citation: BMC Clinical Pharmacology 2011 11:10
Comparative in vitro study of the antimicrobial activities of different commercial antibiotic products of vancomycin
One of the most critical problems about antimicrobial therapy is the increasing resistance to antibiotics. Previous studies have shown that there is a direct relation between erroneous prescription, dosage, ro...
Citation: BMC Clinical Pharmacology 2011 11:9
Comparison of renal effects of ibuprofen versus indomethacin during treatment of patent ductus arteriosus in contiguous historical cohorts
Ibuprofen treatment of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) has been shown to be as effective as indomethacin in small randomized controlled trials, with possibly fewer adverse effects. However, adverse renal effect...
Citation: BMC Clinical Pharmacology 2011 11:8
No relevant cardiac, pharmacokinetic or safety interactions between roflumilast and inhaled formoterol in healthy subjects: an open-label, randomised, actively controlled study
Roflumilast is an oral, selective phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor with anti-inflammatory effects in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The addition of roflumilast to long-acting bronchodilators improv...
Citation: BMC Clinical Pharmacology 2011 11:7
In the last decades, the provision of pharmaceutical care by community pharmacists has developed in OECD countries. These developments involved significant changes in professional practices and organization of...
Citation: BMC Clinical Pharmacology 2011 11:6
Drug safety of rosiglitazone and pioglitazone in France: a study using the French PharmacoVigilance database
Thiazolidinediones (TZDs), rosiglitazone (RGZ) and pioglitazone (PGZ) are widely used as hypoglycemic drugs in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The aim of our study was to investigate the profile of adv...
Citation: BMC Clinical Pharmacology 2011 11:5
Risk of morbidity and mortality in patients with severe heart failure (HF) is reduced by blockade of aldosterone receptors with spironolactone. However, benefits of spironolactone are potentially limited by tr...
Citation: BMC Clinical Pharmacology 2011 11:4
Pharmacokinetics and tolerability of zibotentan (ZD4054) in subjects with hepatic or renal impairment: two open-label comparative studies
Zibotentan (ZD4054) is a specific endothelin A (ETA) receptor antagonist being investigated for the treatment of prostate cancer. As zibotentan is eliminated by renal and metabolic routes, clearance may be reduce...
Citation: BMC Clinical Pharmacology 2011 11:3
Constipation and diarrhoea - common adverse drug reactions? A cross sectional study in the general population
Constipation and diarrhoea are common complaints and often reported as adverse drug reactions. This study aimed at finding associations between drugs and constipation and diarrhoea in a general population.
Citation: BMC Clinical Pharmacology 2011 11:2
Pharmacokinetics of phenoxodiol, a novel isoflavone, following intravenous administration to patients with advanced cancer
Phenoxodiol is a novel isoflavone currently being studied in clinical trials for the treatment of cancer. This study reports the pharmacokinetics of phenoxodiol in patients with cancer.
Citation: BMC Clinical Pharmacology 2011 11:1
An increase in the use of drugs and polypharmacy have been displayed over time in spite of the fact that polypharmacy represents a well known risk factor as regards patients' health due to the adverse drug rea...
Citation: BMC Clinical Pharmacology 2010 10:16
The impact of generic substitution on the activities of pharmaceutical companies - a survey from the companies' perspective one year and five years after the introduction of generic substitution in finland
Mandatory generic substitution (GS) was introduced in Finland on 1 April 2003. The aim of this study was to explore and compare the impacts of GS on the activities of pharmaceutical companies representing main...
Citation: BMC Clinical Pharmacology 2010 10:15
Comparison of the pharmacokinetics, safety and tolerability of two concentrations of a new liquid recombinant human growth hormone formulation versus the freeze-dried formulation
Somatropin is recombinant human growth hormone (GH) used for the treatment of growth failure in children and GH deficiency in adults. Two concentrations of a liquid formulation have been developed: 5.83 and 8....
Citation: BMC Clinical Pharmacology 2010 10:14
Pharmacokinetic comparability of Prolastin®-C to Prolastin® in alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency: a randomized study
Alpha1-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency is characterized by low blood levels of alpha1-proteinase inhibitor (alpha1-PI) and may lead to emphysema. Alpha1-PI protects pulmonary tissue from damage caused by the action ...
Citation: BMC Clinical Pharmacology 2010 10:13
Efficacy and safety of combined prolonged-release oxycodone and naloxone in the management of moderate/severe chronic non-malignant pain: results of a prospectively designed pooled analysis of two randomised, double-blind clinical trials
Two randomised 12-week, double-blind, parallel-group, multicenter studies comparing oxycodone PR/naloxone PR and oxycodone PR alone on symptoms of opioid-induced bowel dysfunction in patients with moderate/sev...
Citation: BMC Clinical Pharmacology 2010 10:12
Knowledge and adherence to antiretroviral therapy among adult people living with HIV/AIDS treated in the health care centers of the association "Espoir Vie Togo" in Togo, West Africa
The efficiency of antiretroviral therapy (ART) depends on a near perfect level of patients' adherence. The level of adherence of adults HIV-infected patients treated in the HIV/AIDS health care centres of the ...
Citation: BMC Clinical Pharmacology 2010 10:11
Ibuprofen and paracetamol differ in their mode of action and related therapeutic effects, suggesting that combined administration may offer improved analgesia. Reported here are the results of two studies on t...
Citation: BMC Clinical Pharmacology 2010 10:10
In spite of recent advances in post-operative pain relief, pain following orthopedic surgery remains an ongoing challenge for clinicians. We examined whether a well known and frequently prescribed homeopathic ...
Citation: BMC Clinical Pharmacology 2010 10:9
Assessing Safety Culture in Pharmacies: The psychometric validation of the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ) in a national sample of community pharmacies in Sweden
Safety culture assessment is increasingly recognized as an important component in healthcare quality improvement, also in pharmacies. One of the most commonly used and rigorously validated tools to measure saf...
Citation: BMC Clinical Pharmacology 2010 10:8
Sodium pentosan polysulfate resulted in cartilage improvement in knee osteoarthritis - An open clinical trial-
Pentosan polysulfate sodium (pentosan) is a semi-synthetic drug manufactured from beech-wood hemicellulose by sulfate esterification of the xylopyranose hydroxyl groups. From in vitro and animal model studies,...
Citation: BMC Clinical Pharmacology 2010 10:7
Use of analgesics in intentional drug overdose presentations to hospital before and after the withdrawal of distalgesic from the Irish market
Distalgesic, the prescription-only analgesic compound of paracetamol (325 mg) and dextropropoxyphene (32.5 mg) known as co-proxamol in the UK, was withdrawn from the Irish market as of January 2006. This study...
Citation: BMC Clinical Pharmacology 2010 10:6
EVITA: a tool for the early EValuation of pharmaceutical Innovations with regard to Therapeutic Advantage
New drugs are generally claimed to represent a therapeutic innovation. However, scientific evidence of a substantial clinical advantage is often lacking. This may be the result of using inadequate control grou...
Citation: BMC Clinical Pharmacology 2010 10:5
Characteristics of primary health care units with focus on drug information from the pharmaceutical industry and adherence to prescribing objectives: a cross-sectional study
Adherence to prescribing guidelines varies between primary health care units. The aim of the present study was to investigate correlations between characteristics of primary health care units and adherence to ...
Citation: BMC Clinical Pharmacology 2010 10:4