Skip to main content

Table 1 Table depicting drugs and nature of adverse events seen during the study

From: Evaluation of the prevalence and economic burden of adverse drug reactions presenting to the medical emergency department of a tertiary referral centre: a prospective study

Drug Class/Drug NO. (%) OF ADRS Individual drugs Adverse Event
Anti tubercular agents (AKT) 52 HRZ (35), AKT (7), Rifampin (4), Ethambutol (2), Pyrazinamide (2) Streptomycin (1), Isoniazid(1), Thrombocytopenia, Hepatitis, Hepatic encephalopathy, Retro bulbar neuritis, Cholestatic jaundice, Erythema multiforme, Vestibular toxicity, Gastritis, Abdominal/Respiratory/Flu like syndrome, Hypersensitivity reaction, Psychosis, Peripheral neuropathy, dysglycemia
Antiepileptics 36 Phenytoin(24), Valproate (5), Phenobarbiturate(4) carbamazepine (3) Erythema multiforme, Symptomatic toxic carbamazepine/phenytoin/valproate levels with cerebellar signs
Antimalarials 30 Chloroquine (29), Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (1) Gastritis, Giddiness, Erthyema multiforme, Psychosis, Hypersensitivity reactions, Hypotension
Anticoagulants 25 Warfarin (24), Heparin (1) GI bleeding, haematuria, high INR, Intracranial bleed
Oral hypoglycemic agents (OHA) 16 Glibenclamide (10), Glyburide (6) Hypoglycemia, seizures,
NSAIDS 14 Paracetamol (6), Aspirin (3), Ibuprofen (1), Etoricoxib (1), Nimesulide (2), Diclofenac (1) Hypersensitivity reaction, Gastritis, mucosal damage, Hematuria, (Etoricoxib) potentiates OHA induced Hypoglycemia, ARF on CRF, Thrombocytopenia
Antihypertensives 10 Atenolol (4), ACE inhibitors (2), Losartan (2), Clonidine (1), Isosorbide dinitrate (1) Hypotension, Hypersensitivity reaction, AV block, Bradycardia, Hyperkalemia, Missed dose of clonidine leading to rebound hypertension, dry mouth
Cytotoxic drugs 9 Methotrexate (3), 5-Fluorouracil (2), Cisplatin (1), Etoposide (1), Paclitaxel (1), Chemo (1) Bone marrow suppression (with opportunistic infection), Nephrotoxicity, Liver damage, GI mucositis, Anorexia, Myelodysplastic syndrome, Alopecia, Hyperuricemia, Abdominal pain, Neutropenia
Steroids 9 Prednisolone (7), Betamethasone (2) Gastritis, Hypertension, Hyperglycemia, Mania, Fragile skin, Facial puffiness, Osteoporosis, Opportunistic infections
Insulin 8 Humulin70/30 (8) Hypoglycemia, Erythema/swelling/stinging at injection site
Digoxin 8 -- Symptomatic toxic digoxin levels
Fluoroquinolones 8 Ciprofloxacin(4), Ofloxacin (2) Gatifloxacin (2) Complex partial seizures, Peripheral neuropathy, Dystonia, Hypersensitivity reaction, tendinitis, dysguesia
B lactam antibiotics 8 Amoxicillin(3), Ampicillin(2), Cefadroxil (1), Ceftriaxone (1), Ceftazidime (1) Hypersensitivity reaction, Fixed drug eruptions, Diarrhea, muscle spasm, Generalized tonic-clonic seizure
Antiretrovirals 4 Efavirenz (2), Stavudine (1), Zidovudine (1) Metabolic acidosis, Drowsiness, hypokalemia, Peripheral neuropathy
Benzodiazepines 4 Chlordiazepoxide (2), Diazepam (2) Increased appetite and weight gain, Drowsiness, Ataxia, Amnesia, Vertigo
Bronchodilators 4 Salbutamol (3), Theophylline (1) Tremors
Haematinics 3 Ferrous fumarate(2) Ferrous sulfate (1) Epigastric pain, Heart burn, Vomiting, Metallic taste in mouth
Fibrinolytics 2 Urokinase (2) Hypotension, AV block
Miscellaneous 15 Metronidazole (1) Nicotinic acid (1) Fluconazole (1) Ethamsylate (1) Amitriptyline (1) Cotrimoxazole (1) Oxybutinin HCl (1) Dextropropoxy- phene (1) Urograffin (1) Amikacin (1) Benzthiazide (1) Amiodarone (1) Levodopa (1) Alendronate (1) Clozapine (1) Gastritis Facial flush, Hypersensitivity reaction (4) Thrombocytopenia, dry mouth Perioral tingling numbness, Carpopedal spasm, Cochlear toxicity Muscle Cramps, Paresthesias raised liver functions Peak dose dyskinesias Esophagitis, constipation, seizure