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Table 1 Detectable plasma concentrations of compounds that revealed a mean degree of phase II conjugation of less than 100 %: catechin (n = 5), caffeic acid (n = 3), U2 (n = 5) and U7 (n = 3) in samples of volunteers after repeated intake of 200 mg Pycnogenol once daily for five days.

From: Single and multiple dose pharmacokinetics of maritime pine bark extract (Pycnogenol) after oral administration to healthy volunteers

  Total plasma concentration Free plasma concentration % conjugated
Catechin [ng/ml] 48.6 ± 16.7 21.0 ± 13.1 56.5 ± 27.9
Caffeic acid [ng/ml] 2.42 ± 1.39 0.56 ± 0.02 69.4 ± 11.8
U2 [peak ratio] 0.0537 ± 0.0132 0.0105 ± 0.0084 77.1 ± 21.3
U7 [peak ratio] 0.0101 ± 0.0007 0.0057 ± 0.0020 45.0 ± 18.5
  1. Plasma concentrations were determined with and without prior incubation of sulfatase and glucuronidase (total and free plasma concentration, respectively) and individual percentage of phase II conjugation was calculated. Mean concentrations and mean deviations of the mean are listed.