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Table 1 Primary outcomes

From: Sodium pentosan polysulfate resulted in cartilage improvement in knee osteoarthritis - An open clinical trial-

  weeks 0 4 8 11 24 52
flexion angle Ave ± SD 132.2 ± 12.4 140.5 ± 8.03 142.9 ± 8.25 144.75 ± 7.41 144.35 ± 8.11 141.4 ± 7.74
  % variation 0 5.8 7.61 9 8.7 6.5
  *: p ‹ 0.05   * * * * *
VAS after 50 m walking Ave ± SD 27.7 ± 21.7 23.4 ± 16.4 16.5 ± 17.7 9.7 ± 14.3 9.8 ± 12.1 8.7 ± 12.2
  % variation 0 -30.49 -53.5 -65.0 -66.67 -64.65
  *: p ‹ 0.05       
VAS after 5 min rest Ave ± SD 21.9 ± 21.3 18.8 ± 17.9 13.4 ± 16.1 8.8 ± 13.1 8.2 ± 13.7 8.1 ± 11.7
  % variation 0 -14.4 -38.6 -60 -62.6 -63
  *: p ‹ 0.05       
VAS up & down stair walking Ave ± SD 41 ± 23.3 27.3 ± 16.2 18.6 ± 17.9 15.6 ± 17.2 12.8 ± 15.2 16.7 ± 17
  % variation 0 -33.5 -54.6 -62 -68.7 -59.3
  *: p ‹ 0.05    * * * *
VAS ROM exercise Ave ± SD 42.1 ± 25.4 29.3 ± 16.8 19.6 ± 17.8 13.0 ± 14.2 14.1 ± 15.8 14.9 ± 13.4
  %variation 0 -30.49 -53.5 -69.3 -66.67 -64.65
  *: p ‹ 0.05    * * * *
C2C Ave ± SD 39.7 ± 9.3 32.3 ± 11.7 31.4 ± 10.7   30.8 ± 9.8 31.9 ± 10.9
  %variation 0 -18.64 -20.91   -22.41 -19.65
  *: p ‹ 0.05    *   *  
  1. The parameters were shown at entry point, 4th, 8th, 11th, 24th, and 52nd weeks. They were provided as absolute levels, percentage of variation with time and statistical significance. There were statistically significant improvements from the baseline score in flexion angle at 4th, 8th, 11th, 24th, and 52nd weeks; in VAS up and down stair walking and in VAS knee R.O.M. exercises at 8th, 11th, 24th, and 52nd weeks; and in C2C concentration in blood at 11th and 24th weeks. The parameters, not limited to significant value, showed improvement in the percentage of variation with time. The improvement might appear in the late phase of injection and continue to 52 weeks.
  2. The asterisks indicate statistically significant improvement.